Dublin (Love) Baile Átha Cliath, UK: Dublin) is the Irish capital located in the eastern part of the island.
Baile Átha Cliath
From top: Samuel Beckett, Dublin Convention Center, O'Connell Bridge, Trinity College, Custom House, Dublin Castle
|Nickname: The Fair City|
|Slogan: "Obedientia Civium Urbis Felicitas"|
Location of Dublin in Dublin Prefecture
|Coordinates: 53 degrees 20 minutes 34 seconds north latitude 6 degrees 15 minutes 58 seconds west longitude/ 53.34278 degrees north latitude 6.26611 degrees west longitude/ 53.34278; -6.26611|
|County||Province of Dublin|
|mayor||Hesel Chu |
|urban area||115 km2|
|population||(as of 2016)|
|equal time||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)|
|daylight saving time||Ireland Time (UTC+1)|
|Postal code||D1 - D18、D20、D22、D24、D6W|
|Official website: dublincity.ie|
It belongs to the Province of Dublin in the Lencester region. It is located at the mouth of the Rify River and on the East Coast Bay, and the town extends north and south. To the south it adjoins the Dublin Mountains, a part of the Wicklow Mountains. The population in 2016 was 1,173,179.
It is the center of politics, economics, transportation and culture in Ireland, and 44% of the total population of Ireland is the largest city in Ireland in the Dublin metropolitan area. It is one of Europe's leading world cities and one of the most important financial centers.
On the streets and memorial days, there are many names of people who have worked hard to expand the rights of Irish people and activists who have lost their lives for the British independence movement. Examples include Onnell Street, a main street in the town named Daniel O'Connell, Pierce Street, and Connolly Station, which are named after Patrick Pierce. Although they were originally named differently, they were renamed after the independence in 1921 (O'Connell-dori Street was once called Sackville-dori Street).
"Dublin" is derived from "Dubhlind/Duibhlind" which means "black puddle" in the early Classical Irish, and consists of "dubh" which means "black and dark" and "lind" which means puddle. The pool was located at the site of a castle yard behind Dublin Castle, where the Podol River entered the Liffey River. In modern Irish, it is called "Duibhlinn," but according to the Irish rhyme in Dublin Prefecture, it is called "Duílinn." This pronunciation has been passed down to other languages, including the old English Difelin, the old Nordic Dyflin, the Icelandic Dyflinn, the Manx Divlyn, the Welsh Dulyn, and the Breton Dulenn. In other areas of Ireland, it is named "Duibhlinn", and it is English-coded in various ways, such as "Devlin", "Divlin", and "Difflin." Historically, in the Installer's body, a dot was placed over b, "bh" and the expression was 'Dulinn' or 'Duilinn'. Those who didn't know Irish, omitted the dot and wrote "Dublin."
Today, it is considered that the settlement of the Vikings was ahead of the Christian church-like settlement, "Duibhlinn", and it was named "Dyflin" from that. In the 9th and 10th centuries, there were two settlements in the current town. The Viking community of around 841, "Dyflin", and the Gaelic community of Áth Cliath, which was located further back along the river, are located at the present Father Matthew Bridge (also known as the Dublin Bridge), located at the bottom of Church Street. "Baile Átha Cliath" means "Watarigaki no Watarase no Machi" and is used to refer to Dublin in modern Irish. "Áth Cliath" is the name of a branch of the Riffey River near Father Matthew Bridge. There are other towns of the same name, for example, in Harford, East Ayrshire, Scotland, where "Àth Cliath" is written in Gaelic, Scotland.
The area of Dublin Bay had been manned since before the prehistoric times, and the description by Ptolemy (ancient Greek and Roman astronomers and cartographers) in the Christian era of 140 is the oldest literature to show that the area was settled there. This was called "βλανα πόλις".
Dublin marked the millennium in 1988. The Irish government recognizes the settlement in 1988 as later Dublin City.
It is now considered that the settlement of the Vikings in around 841 was earlier than the 'Duibhlinn' known as a Christian churchlike settlement, and it is said that the 'Dyflin' came to be known from that. In the 9th and 10th centuries, there were two villages which later became present-day Dublin. Later, the Scandinavian colony concentrated on the Podol, a tributary of the Liffey River, a region known as the Wood Quay. "Dubhlinn" was the puddle in the lowest part of the Podol, and was used to moor the ship. The sump was located on the opposite side of the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle, where the current Castle Park was located, and finally flooded with the growth of the city in the early 18th century. In "The Battle of Cooley's Cattle," it is described as "Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath" (Dublin called O Clear).
Dublin was established as a place of residence for the Viking in the 10th century, and despite the repeated attacks by the Irish, most of them were under the control of the Viking until the Normans invaded Ireland in 1169 from Wales. In the beginning of 1166, Murta Macrocrin, the King of Ireland, died, and King Connaught, Louis Our Concheval, landed in Dublin and became the King of Ireland without opposition.
Some historians say that part of Dublin's early economic growth was due to slave trade. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its peak from the 9th to the 10th century. Prisoners of slave attacks and kidnappings have made money for Irish attackers and vikings who have started slavery. The victims included Wales, England and Normandy.
King Lenster Darmat McMoreau conquered Dublin with the help of Richard de Clair, the Count of Penbrook. After the death of Mac MALO, Kyouyu declared himself King Lencer after winning the right to rule the city. King of England, Henry II, who succeeded in invading the strong bow, made a large-scale invasion in 1171 and became the ultimate sovereign power as the lord of Ireland. At that time, with a certain degree of freedom adjacent to Dublin City, the prefecture of Dublin City (County) was established, and continued until Dublin City was separated from the Baron system in 1840. After 2001, the two baronial territories were re-designated as Dublin City.
Dublin Castle, the center of the Norman power in Ireland, was built as a large-scale defense work under the order of the King of England in 1204. After the first mayor of Dublin was appointed in 1229, the town of Dublin expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. In 1317, Robert I, the king of Scotland, attempted to occupy Dublin, but he flourished as a trading center. Even in the 14th century, it remained a relatively small medieval town surrounded by walls and was threatened by the surrounding Indigenous Peoples. In 1348, the plague that hit Europe hit Dublin and killed thousands of people in the next decade.
Dublin was annexed as Pail to the Prince of England. The Tudor conquest of the 16th century marked the beginning of a new era in Dublin and showed a new presence as the center of Irish government. Queen Elizabeth I of England decided to make Dublin a Protestant city, and in 1592 ordered the establishment of Trinity College at Dublin University as a Protestant university to rebuild St. Patrick's Cathedral and Christchurch's Cathedral in the Catholic Church into Protestants.
In 1640, it had 21,000 people, but from 1649 to 1651, the plague occurred, and almost half of the residents died out. However, it soon flourished as a result of the wool and linen trade with the United Kingdom, and in 1700 the population exceeded 50,000.
Early modern times
In 1759, the Guinness Brewery was established, and later, it grew to be the largest brewery in the world and became the largest employer in Dublin.
During the Puritan Revolution in the United Kingdom in the 17th century, Dublin was surrounded by the Cromwell's parliamentary forces. The Irish Nationalist Organization, United Irishmen, rose in revolt in 1798, but the attempt to capture Dublin failed and the uprising was repeated again in 1803, 1847 and 1867. The Irish Uprising in 1916 and 1919 to 1921 made Dublin a fierce battle field.
Successive kings of Ireland, powerful people, and England, which ruled Ireland, also had administrative bases in Dublin Castle, and the Irish government and politics were the center until the independence of Ireland.
From the end of the 17th century, various industries were developed by Huguenot and Flanders who came from the continent, and in the 18th century, they became the second largest city in the British Empire and the fifth largest city in Europe. Many buildings built around this time remain in the old city.
British Colonial Age (Modern)
The Joint Act of 1800 was passed by the Irish Parliament and passed. As a result, the Royal Court of Great Britain and the Royal Court of Ireland were united and dissolved. Since then, Dublin has suffered from political and economic decline. Although it did not play a major role in the Industrial Revolution, it was the center of administration and remained a hub of traffic for most of the island. Ireland did not have an important source of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not the center of ship production, another engine of industrial development in England and Ireland. Because Belfast was a mix of international trade, factory linen production and shipbuilding industries, it developed earlier than Dublin at that time.
The Easter Uprising in 1916, the Irish Independence War, and the subsequent civil war in Ireland, have caused significant physical destruction of central Dublin. The Government of the Free State of Ireland rebuilt the center of Dublin and installed the new Council, Urakas, at the Leinster House. Since the Norman rule began in the 12th century, Dublin has functioned as the capital of the geopolitical organizations such as the Lord of Ireland (1171 - 1541), the Kingdom of Ireland (1541 - 1800), the Great Britain and the United Kingdom of Ireland (1801 - 1922), the Republic of Ireland (1919 - 122). Based on the Anglo-Irish Treaty, it became the capital of the Free State of Ireland (1922 - 1937) after the division of Ireland in 1922, and is still the capital of Ireland. One of the monuments is the Garden of Recollections (Love: An Gairdín Cuimhneacháin, UK: Garden of Remembrance). The enforcement of the new constitution in 1937 led to the establishment of the Éire, an independent democratic country. In 1949, Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom.
Dublin was also a victim of the 30-year conflict in Northern Ireland, but the violence was mainly in Northern Ireland. However, the IRA Provisional Party received support from the Republic, including Dublin. The paramilitary group Ulster (supporters of the United Kingdom and the Northern Ireland Coalition), Ulster Volunteer Army bombed the city around this time, and 34 people died in the Dublin Monahan bombings, mainly in central Dublin.
Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed. During the Celtic Tiger Era, development by the private sector and the state, such as housing, transportation, and business, was carried out and led the economic development of Ireland. After the economic slump in the Great Recession, Dublin has recovered and is now close to full employment as of 2017. However, the supply of housing in the city and surrounding areas remains problematic.
Even today, the Irish government's legislature and major government offices stand on Merrion Street in the central part of the city and around Merrion Square, and they prosper as the center of Irish politics, economy and culture.
From 1842, a boundary was established between Dublin City and the Baron Dublin. In 1930, the border was expanded by the Local Government (Dublin) Act. Later, in 1953, the border was expanded again by the Act for Confirmation of the Provisional Order of the Local Government (Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation Act).
The City Council of Dublin (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath) is a one-member assembly consisting of 63 seats elected from local constituencies every five years. The chair was run by the mayor who was elected for his tenure in the year and lives in an apartment house in Dublin. The Congress is being held at the City Hall of Dublin, and most of the administration is being held at the Wood Quays Citizens' Office. A political party or coalition of political parties that make up the majority of the seats will assign members, introduce policies and propose them to the mayor. Congress will pass an annual budget to spend on housing, traffic control, waste, waste water and planning.
Dublin is the capital of Ireland and the location of the Irish National Assembly (consisting of Urakas, Doyle Airan and Chanaz Airan). The Irish Constitution requires Dublin and its outskirts to have a parliament. The president is at the President's Palace in Phoenix Park, and the two Urakas are at the Lanster House, the former Dukes' palace on Kildare Street. Since the Irish Free State was born in 1922, it has been the base of the Irish Parliament. The former Irish Capitol of the Kingdom of Ireland is in College Green.
The government will serve as the Department of Prime Minister (Taoiseach), Congress, Treasury and Secretary of Justice. It consists of the main building and two buildings . The first Diet session was held at an apartment house in 1919.
The House of Representatives election is divided into five Dublin electoral districts, with a total of 19 members of the Diet (TD) elected. The constituencies and seats are three in central Dublin, five in northern Dublin Bay, three in northwestern Dublin, four in southern Dublin and four in southern Dublin Bay.
In the 2016 general election, six members of the United Irish Party, four members of the Shin Fein Party, two members of the Republican Party, four members of the House of Representatives, two members of the Independents who were not affiliated to the Diet for reform, one member of the People's Republic of China, one member of the Green Party and one member of the Social Democratic Party (Teachta Dála, TD) were elected in the Dublin City.
Dublin Post Office
Dublin is divided by the post office. The number of rivers in the north of the Rify River is odd, and the number in the south is even. In some areas of Dublin Province (Dan Leary, Black Rock, Lucan, Saws, etc.), there is no post office block.
|Dublin Post Office|
|North Bank (north of the Lify River)||South Bank (south of the Liffi River)|
|Dublin 1 District||Dublin 2nd district|
|Dublin 3rd District||Dublin 4 Wards (Dublin, Dan Leary-Rasdown)|
|Dublin 5th District||Dublin 6th district (Dan Leary-Rasdown, Dublin City)|
|Dublin 7th district||6 Dublin Wards (Dublin, Minami Dublin City)|
|Dublin 9th district||Dublin 8th district|
|Dublin 11 Wards (Dublin, Finger City)||Dublin 10th district|
|Dublin 13 Wards (Dublin, Finger City)||Dublin 12th district|
|Dublin 15th District (Finger City)||14 Dubrin (Dublin, Dan Leary-Rasdun, South Dublin)|
|Dublin 17 Wards (Dublin, Finger City)||Dublin 16 Wards (Dan Leary-Rasdun, South Dublin)|
|Dublin 18 Wards (Dan Leary-Rasdown)|
|Dublin 20 District (Dublin City, South Dublin City)|
|Dublin 22 Wards (Minamidablin City)|
|Dublin 24 Wards (Minamidablin City)|
Dublin is located at the mouth of the Liffey River and has a land area of about 115km2 in the eastern central part of Ireland. In the south, surrounded by the low mountains called the Dublin Mountains and the submountains of the Wicklow Mountains, and in the north and west, surrounded by flat farmlands.
The Riffey River divides Dublin into two between the north and south. It curves eastward from the northeast by leak slip, and at this point the use of farm land is being shifted from urban development.
There are the Turca River, which flows southeast into the Gulf of Dublin, and the Dodar River, which flows northeast, and there are several branches of the Liffey River. Several streams are also flowing into the sea.
At the port facing the Riffey River there is a quay for large ships, and two large canals connecting Dublin and the Shannon River, namely the Royal Canal in the south and the Grand Canal in the north, flow in an annular shape through the city.
Although it is located far higher latitude than Hokkaido in Japan, like many other regions in northwestern Europe, Dublin belongs to the Sea Climate (Cfb), warm in summer, cool in winter and has no extreme temperature change. The average high temperature in January is 8.8°C and the average high in July is 20.2°C. On average, the longest hours of sunlight were May and June, the most rainy month was 76mm in October, and the most dry month was 46mm in February. The annual amount of rainfall is less than that of Japan, but the amount of rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.
Located on the east coast, Dublin is the most dry of Ireland and only about half of the West. In the southern part of the city, the average annual precipitation is 683mm, the lowest in Japan, and the average annual precipitation in the center of the city is 714mm. The main amount of rainfall in winter is rainfall, but it sometimes snows from November to March. However, it often rains hail more than snow. Summer days are long and winter days are short. A strong wind blows from the Atlantic in the fall. Such winds may affect Dublin, but because of the east wind, Dublin is rarely affected in comparison with other regions. However, in winter, it becomes cold due to the east wind, and it often snows.
In the 20th century, smog and air pollution became a problem in Dublin and bituminous fuels were banned. It was implemented in 1990 to address the fact that the concentration of black smoke was related to the death of the cardiovascular system or respiratory system of the residents. Since the ban, non-traumatic mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality have decreased, and an estimated 350 deaths per year have been confirmed.
|Climate of Dublin|
|Maximum Temperature Record °C (°F)||17.5 |
|Mean maximum temperature°C (°F)||8.1 |
|Average daily temperature°C (°F)||5.3 |
|Mean Minimum Temperature °C (°F)||2.4 |
|Minimum Temperature Recording °C (°F)||-15.6 |
|Precipitation mm (inch)||62.6 |
|average number of days of precipitation||12||10||11||10||11||10||10||11||10||11||11||12||185|
|average monthly daylight time||58.9||76.3||108.5||159.0||192.2||174.0||164.3||158.1||129.0||102.3||72.0||52.7||1,447.3|
|Source: Met Éireann|
|Climate of Dublin|
|Mean Sea Temperature (°C)||9.6 ||8.8 ||8.4 ||9.1 ||10.4 ||12.3 ||14.1 ||14.9 ||14.8 ||14.1 ||13.1 ||11.3 ||11.7|
|average hours of sunlight||8.0||10.0||12.0||14.0||16.0||17.0||16.0||15.0||13.0||11.0||9.0||8.0||12.4|
|mean ultraviolet index||0||1||2||4||5||6||6||5||4||2||1||0||1|
|Source: Weather Atlas|
Dublin has many landmark and monument dating back hundreds of years. In 1204, just after the Normans invaded Ireland in 1169, the order of John, the King of England, was issued to build Dublin-jo Castle, with strong walls and good grooves, to protect the city's defense, justice and treasure. The castle, which had been completed by 1230, was a typical Norman style courtyard, with no keep in the central square, surrounded by high protective walls and each corner protected with a circular tower. Located southeast of Dublin in the Norman era, this castle formed a corner of the city's outer periphery and used the Podol River as a natural defense tool.
One of Dublin's most recent monuments is the Dublin's spire, officially called "Monument of Light." A conical, stainless-steel spire of 121.2m, located on O'Connell Street, where Henry Street and North Earl Street intersect. It replaces the pillar of Nelson and is considered a symbol of Dublin in the 21st century. Ian Richie Architectures, in charge of designing the steeple, pursued "elegant and dynamic simplicity, a bridge between art and technology." The base and top of the monument are lit up, and beacons are installed in the night sky crossing the city.
The old library at Trinity College at Dublin University owns "The Books of Quels," which is one of the most visited places in Dublin. "The Books of Quels" is a pictorial manuscript made by Irish monks around 800. The Half-Penny Bridge, an iron footbridge over the Liffey River, is one of the most photographed spots in Dublin and is regarded as one of the landmarks representing Dublin.
Other landmarks and monuments include Christchurch Cathedral, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Mansion House, Molly Malone Statue, complex buildings around the Lanster House, including part of the Irish National Museum and the National Library of Ireland, Custom House, and the Presidential Palace. There is another monument to Anna Rivia. The Poolbeg Tower, a power plant, is also regarded as one of the landmarks and can be seen from various places in the city.
Samuel Beckett Bridge
Trinity College Old Library
Half Penny Bridge
St. Patrick's Cathedral
Christ Church Cathedral
There are many green lands in Dublin, and the City Council is managing more than 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks. Public parks include Phoenix Park, Herbert Park, St. Stevens Green, St. Anne's Park, and Bull Island. Phoenix Park is located about three kilometers west of the city center and on the north side of the Liffey River. The castle walls of the surrounding area of 16km, which encircle 707 hectares (1,750 acres), are one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. There is a meadow and a avenue of trees, and since the 17th century there have been flocks of deer in the wild fallow. The Irish President's Residence (Áras an Uachtaráin), Dublin Zoo, Ashtown Castle and the U.S. Ambassador's residence, which were built in 1751, are also located in the park. In addition, events such as music concerts and Experience Japan that introduces Japanese culture are sometimes held.
St. Stevens Green is located next to one of the bustling streets: Grafton Street and Stevens Shopping Center, where public institutions are lined up in the surrounding streets.
St. Anne's Park, a shared park between Lehney and Kronturf on the north shore, is also used as a recreational facility. It is the second largest municipal park in Dublin, and is part of the 2km2 site, which was gathered in 1835 by members of the Guinness family including Benjamin Guinness, and is characterized by the five-kilometer seashore area.
Dublin was the center of the Irish economy and was at the forefront of the nation's economic development in the Celtic Tiger era. Although it once prospered to the extent that it was called the second city of the British Empire, it died after its independence due to the maintenance policy and economic recession of the Irish government, and as a result of the outflow of the population as an immigrant. However, due to the participation in the European Community and the rapid economic growth in the IT, pharmaceutical, tourism, and financial industries in the 1990s, the growth and population increase far exceeding the scale of the former colonial period were seen. As a result, there were many problems caused by the concentration of population, such as the steep rise in real estate and traffic congestion, and the city was rapidly redeveloped all over the town. In 2009, Dublin was chosen as the world's fourth largest wealthy city with purchasing power and tenth largest in personal income. According to Mercer's 2011 World Living Expenses Survey, Dublin is the 13th largest city in the European Union (down from the 10th in 2010) and the 58th largest city in the world (down from the 42nd in 2010) where prices are high. As of 2017, approximately 874,400 people were employed in the Dublin metropolitan area, and about 60% of the people in Ireland's finance, ICTs and professions live there
Guinness has been brewed at the St. James Gate Brewery since 1759, but many of them, such as food processing, fiber production, brewing and distillation, have gradually declined. With economic improvements in the 1990s, many global pharmaceutical and information technology companies have moved to the Dublin and Dublin urban areas. Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, EBay, PayPal, Yahoo!, Facebook, Twitter, Accenture, and Pfizer have their headquarters in Dublin and are based in Europe, and companies are also located in corporate clusters such as digital hubs and silicon docks. The existence of these companies has led to the economic development of Dublin, and Dublin is sometimes called "the capital of technology in Europe."
Financial services has become an important part of the International Financial Center, where more than 500 financial institutions are trading under the IFSC program. Overseas banks such as Citibank and Commerz Bank also have their branches in Dublin. Major exchanges include the Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), the Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and the Irish Exchange (IEX). Dublin is regarded as one of the major cities in the world to compete for financial services companies that want to maintain access to the euro zone after Britain's secession from the European Union. Under the influence of the Celtic tiger, a large-scale redevelopment project was carried out at Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock, which caused a temporary construction boom. The finished projects include the Convention Center, the 3 Arena and the Board Gash Energy Theater.
In the second quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate in Dublin fell to 5.7%, as reported by the Dublin Economic Monitor, to the lowest level in 10 years.
|the main group of immigrants in Dublin (2016)|
The city of Dublin is a region controlled by the City Council, but the term "Dublin" is also used to refer to the cities and towns which include parts of the neighboring local governments, Dan Leary-Rasdun, Fingar and Minami Dublin. These four regions have traditionally formed the Province of Dublin and are sometimes called the Province of Dublin. According to the 2016 census, the population of the administrative area managed by the city council was 554,554 and that of the urban area was 1,173,179. The population of Dublin Prefecture was 1,273,069, and the population of the Dublin metropolitan area (Dublin, Mees, Kildare and Wicklow) was 1,904,806. The population is expanding rapidly, and the Central Bureau of Statistics estimates it will reach 2.1 million by 2020.
After World War II, Italians were overwhelmingly the largest immigrant group in both Dublin and Ireland, and became synonymous with catering and restaurants. Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced significant net immigrants, with the largest number of immigrants from the European Union, especially from Britain, Poland and Lithuania. They also live in immigrants from non-European countries such as Brazil, India, the Philippines, the People's Republic of China and Nigeria. Dublin has a higher rate of new immigrants than other parts of Ireland. 60% of Irish Asian population live in Dublin. More than 15% of Dublin's population was born abroad in 2006.
Dublin has the highest percentage of non-Catholic immigrants from other countries. Due to the progress of secularization in Ireland, the regular attendance rate for the Catholic Church in Dublin exceeded 90% in the mid-1970s, but in 2011 the rate dropped to 14%.
According to a 2016 census, the population of Dublin was 86.2% (862,381), other white people were 13.2% (132,846), white Irish Traveler was 0.5% (5,092), black people were 2% (23,892), and Asian people were 4.6% (46,626). Furthermore, 2.7% (27,412 people) have other ethnic and cultural backgrounds, and 4.9% (49,092 people) do not state their ethnicity. In terms of religion, 68.2% said they were Catholic, 12.7% said they were other religions, and 19.1% said they were not religious.
As of July 2018, 1,367 households lived in homeless accommodation and other emergency homes in the Dublin area.
The Liffey River divided Dublin north and south, and the cultural gap was traditional to some extent. The south side is generally considered to be richer and more refined than the north side.
In tourism and real estate marketing, Dublin City is sometimes divided into several areas. These include the Middle Ages (Dublin Castle, Christchurch Cathedral, St. Patrick's Cathedral, old walls), the Georgian District (St. Stevens Green, Trinity College, Marion Square), the Docklands District (Dublin Docklands, around Silicon Dock), the Cultural District (around Temple Bar), the Creative District (between South William Street and George's Street), and so on.
Dublin is the largest center of education in Ireland and has many higher education institutions, including five universities. In 2012, he was elected the capital of European science.
Dublin University is the oldest Irish university established in the 16th century and is located in the center of the city. The only constituent college, the Trinity College (TCD), was established in 1592 by the Royal Patent of Elizabeth I. Until 1793, it was closed to Catholics, but from 1871 to 1970, the Irish Catholic Church prohibited entry without permission. Located in College Green in the center of the city, more than 18,000 students are enrolled. In the old library, the collection of books such as "The Books of Celts," which represent Celtic art, are open to the public.
The National University of Ireland has its headquarters in Dublin, and is also the location of the University of University College Dublin (UCD, National University of Ireland), where more than 30,000 people are registered. Established in 1854, it is now the largest university in Ireland. The main campus of the UCD is in Belfield, a suburb of the southeast about five kilometers from the center of the city.
The Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), the largest institute of technology and research originating in 1887, was merged with the two higher education institutions in the suburbs, the Tara Institute of Technology (ITT) and the Branchazstown Institute of Technology (ITB), to form the Dublin Institute of Technology (TUD). The school conducts education and research in a wide range of fields, including engineering, architecture, science, health, journalism, digital media, hospitality, business, art, music, humanities, and has three campuses: Gran Jigorman, Tara and Brancharstown.
The University of Dublin (DCU) was formerly a Dublin school of the National Higher Education Institution (NIHE), where they were engaged in education and research on business, engineering, science, communication, language and primary education. There are more than 16,000 students in the campus, and the campus is located in the northern suburb of about seven kilometers from the center of the city. He has a major in Japanese and Japanese culture.
The Royal Institute of Surgeons (RCSI), which specializes in medical science, is located in St. Stevens Green, a city center. The National University of Art and Design (NCAD) teaches and studies in art. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also in Dublin, and the Institute for Economic and Social Studies, a research institute for social science, and the Dublin Institute of Advanced Research are also in the city. In addition, there are many colleges (colleges) and continued education.
elementary and secondary education
Elementary and secondary educational institutions (equivalent to elementary schools in Japan) in Dublin are mainly educated in English. In Dublin there are 34 elementary schools in Irish language called "gaelscoileanna" and ten secondary schools in Irish language called "gaelcholáistí", where 12,950 students are enrolled.
The Irish traffic network is mainly centered on Dublin. The expressway M50 is constructed in a semi-enclosed manner to connect the expressway to other areas in Japan and to the expressway for Northern Ireland.
In 2006, the Dublin Port Tunnel, the Eastern Bypass of Dublin City, was opened as a first step to solving the problem of traffic congestion, which connects with the Dublin Port, the M1 expressway and the Dublin Airport. Surrounded by two highways dedicated to the inside and outside, the two are connected to the heart of Georgian-style streets, and the two highways dedicated to the outside are mainly maintained along natural circles formed by the Great Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as by the North-South Circulatory Road. Most of the charge is free, but in some areas the charge is paid. Of these, the tollbooth of M50 has been removed, and either through ETC or through the Internet, the toll is paid by 8 p.m. the next day.
In 2016, Dublin is recognized as the 15th largest city in the world and the 7th most crowded city in Europe.
The Dublin Bus Co., Ltd. operates approximately 200 routes, covering the city and the suburbs, on a two-story bus (double decker). Most of the buses are operated by Dublin Bus Co., Ltd., and in 2018 several routes were transferred to Goalhead Ireland, but SME bus companies also operate the bus service. The fare is generally calculated based on the stage according to the distance. A real-time timetable introduced in 2012 was adopted, and the buses introduced show the time to arrive at the bus based on the location-determined GPS. The National Transportation Bureau (NTA) was involved in the introduction of a loop card for IC card tickets that can be used with each other on buses and trains.
According to a 2011 census, 5.9% of Dublin's commuters are cycling. According to a report by the City Council on the flow of traffic across the city's inner and outer canals in 2013, less than 10% of the total traffic was used by bicycle users, up 14.1% from 2012 and 87.2% from 2006. Measures such as sharing bicycles, setting up a lane dedicated to bicycles, a promotional campaign for promotion, and the introduction of a speed limit of 30km/h in the central part of the city have been successful.
The City Council of Dublin has started the installation of a bicycle lane throughout the city since the 1990s, and exceeded the President's 200km in 2012. In 2011, it ranked ninth among the world's major cities in the world's ranking of bicycle-friendly cities. The index fell to 15th place in 2015 and Dublin was off on the top 20 in 2017.
The Dublin Bike is a bicycle-sharing system that has been operated in Dublin since 2009. Sponsored by Jesse Duco and Just Eat, an on line food delivery service, hundreds of bicycles are installed at 44 parking lots in the central part of the city. Users must apply for a one-year contract or purchase a three-day ticket. In 2018, more than 66,000 long-term subscribers used it more than two million times a year.
Railways and streetcars
Irish National Railways runs intercity, commuter and Dublin Express Transport (DART). Dublin Houston Station and Dublin Connolly Station are the main terminals of Dublin. DART, the only train in Ireland, runs along the coast of Dublin and consists of 31 stations, south of Malahyde and Houth, up to Graystones in Wicklow Province. The commuter is a diesel car that connects the urban Dublin area and the commuter cities of Drojeda and Dundok in Laus, and Golly in Wexford. In 2013, 16 million passengers and 11.7 million passengers on the DART and suburban lines in Dublin (approximately 75% of the passengers on the Irish National Railways) were passengers.
The streetcar used to run through Dublin, but most of it was abolished by 1949. In 2004, a streetcar called Luas started its operation, and is operated by Transdev, which carries more than 34 million passengers a year. Red Lines connect Docklands with Tara and Sagat in the central and southwestern suburbs, while Green Line connects the northern suburb of the city and the central part of the city with the suburbs such as Sandyford and Briseglen in the southern part of the city. These routes consist of a total of 67 stops and 44.5km tracks. In June 2013, the construction of the 6-km green line extension started on the north side of Dublin, and the line was opened on December 9, 2017.
The Metro Link, a subway line that runs from Saws in the northern part of Dublin Prefecture to San Diford via Dublin Airport and St. Stevens Green, is scheduled to start in 2021 and open in 2027.
It is connected by bus from Dublin Connolly Station to Dublin Port, and the ferry runs between Irish Ferry and Maintainer Line, where trains bound for Chester, Crew, and London Euston Station on the North Wales Coast Line pass to Hollehead. The Eurolines have long-distance buses bound for London and Edinburgh via ferry.
Dublin Airport, owned and operated by DAA, is located near Soz, Finger City, Dublin Prefecture (north of Dublin City). The headquarters of Airingus, Ireland's flagship carrier, Stubert Air, Citijet, and other commercial airlines have their headquarters near there, and Ryan Air, a low-cost airline. Dublin Airport is operated on long-distance routes to short and medium-distance routes, domestic routes, the United States of America, Canada, the Middle East and Asia. It is the 11th most popular airport in the European Union and the most popular airport in the Irish Island. In 2016, 27.9 million passengers used Dublin Airport to set a record high, supported by the growth of short-distance and long-distance routes. Transatlantic steamers increased in 2015 and 2016, making 158 summer flights to North America a week, making it the sixth hub airport in the year. Between 2010 and 2016, the number of passengers a year at Dublin Airport increased by nearly 9.5 million, and the number of civilian transport has also grown from 163,703 in 2013 to 191,233 in 2015.
Dublin has Weston Airport and other small facilities, which are used by various helicopters, and the military and some state agencies use the nearby Casement Airport.
Dublin has an important literary history, and it has produced many literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yates, George Bernard Shaw, and Samuel Beckett. In addition, Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and Bram Stoker, the parents of Dracula's life, have produced many influential writers and dramatists. In the southern suburb of the town, there remains a building where James Joyce had been staying. Joyce also wrote a short edition called "The People of Dublin," a masterpiece of the history and suffering of the local people. The Memorial Hall was a lookout tower built to prepare for the invasion of Napoleon, and was shaped like a piece in a chess castle. "Ulysses," the representative work of Joyce, is a story in which Broome and Stephen Diedalas, who were likened to two main characters of Homer's "Odyssey," wander in search of each other without knowing the city of Dublin. Also, as a philosopher who came from the area, the priest Berkley went to the United States to preach and left his name at the University of California, Berkeley. Other well known writers, including John Milington Singh, Sean Okesee, Brendan Bihan, Mayv Binchi, John Banville, Roddy Doyle, and others, have also appeared. In Dublin, there is the largest library and museum of literature in Ireland, including the National Museum of Woodblock Prints and the National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was chosen as a literary city in UNESCO following Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City.
There are a number of theaters in the center of the city, including Noel Purcell, Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleason, Stephen Ray, Colin Farrell, Colm Meini, Gabriel Bahn, and other actors from the theater world in Dublin. The most well known theaters include the Gaiety Theater, the Abbey Theater, the Olympia Theater, the Gate Theater, and the Board Garsh Energy Theater. The Gaiety Theater specializes in musical and opera works and holds various live music, dance and movies. The Abbey was established in 1904 by a group including Yates to promote the talent of native literati. Later, he made a great leap for some writers such as John Milington Singh, Yates himself, and George Bernard Shaw. The Gate Troupe was established in 1928 to promote avant-garde works in Europe and the United States. The Board Guy Energy Theater is a theater that opened at the Grand Canal Dock in 2010.
Dublin is not only the center of Irish literature and theater, but also the center of Irish arts and arts scenes. At Trinity College of Dublin University, "The Books of Celts," a manuscript made by Celtic priests in 800, is on display. The Chester Beatty Library at Dublin-jo Castle houses a collection of manuscripts, detailed paintings, woodblock prints, drawings, precious books and decorative art collected by Lord Alfred Chester Beatty (1875 - 1968), a wealthy American (honorary citizen of Ireland). It was created after 2700 B.C. and has a collection of art works from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe, including Japanese Chokon-uta Emaki .
Galleries such as the Contemporary Art Museum of Ireland, the National Museum of Art, the Hugh Lane Gallery, the Douglas Hyde Gallery, the Project Arts Center, and the exhibition space of the Royal Hibernian Academy are located all over Dublin and can be viewed free of charge.
The National Museum of Ireland has three branch offices: Archeological Art and History on Kildare Street, and the History of Nature on Merrion Street. There are small museums such as No. 29 on Fitzwilliam Street and Dublin Little Museum in St. Stevens Green. Dublin is a National University of Art and Design (NCAD) established in 1746 and the Dublin Design Institute, established in 1991. Doublenia is a historical attraction that introduces the Viking of Dublin and the history of the medieval period.
Dublin was chosen to host the 2014 world design capital. The then prime minister, Enda Kenny, said, "It will be an ideal candidate to host the world design capital in 2014."
Dublin is one of the largest cities in Europe with the largest number of young people, and 50% of the population is estimated to be under 25. St. Stevens Green and Grafton Street, Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street, and Leeson Street are places where there are many nightclubs and pubs.
The Temple Bar area, located in the center of the city, was once devastated, but was reborn as an area of tourism and youth, with government redevelopment plans, such as pubs, galleries, restaurants, cafes, movie theaters, clubs, and live houses. There are also bacherat parties from England and bacherolette parties.
In various parts of the city you can see musicians performing street performances on the streets. Dublin has produced international successful musicians and groups such as the Dublin Brothers, Shin Lizzi, Boom Town Lutz, U2, the Script, Cineid O'Connor, the Boy Zone, Cordline, West Life, Bob Gerdoff, and My Bloody Valentine. In Dublin, there are several medium-sized venues where live music is held throughout the week, such as Wieland (Whelans) and Vicar Street (Vicar Street). Three Arena in Dublin Docklands is holding performances of world-class performers in Japan.
Dublin is the center of Irish media and communications and is home to many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies. The Irish Broadcasting Corporation (RTÉ) is a state-run broadcasting station in Ireland, headquartered in Donnybrook.
Virgin Media Television, eir Sport, MTV Ireland and Sky News are also based in the city. The city also has the headquarters of the Irish Post Service (An Post), the telecommunications companies such as Air, and the mobile phone companies Vodafone and 3. National papers, such as the Irish Times and the Irish Independence, as well as local papers, such as the Evening Herald, are also headquartered in Dublin.
Dublin is not only the home ground of RTÉ radio, but also radio such as Today FM and Newstalk, which are broadcast nationwide, and local stations. 4fm (94.9 MHz), Dublin's 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Q102 (102.2 MHz), SPIN 1038 (103.8 MHz), FM104 (104.4 MHz), Sunshine 106.8 (106.8 MHz), etc. There are also many community stations and special interest stations, including Dublin City FM (103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM (93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), Near FM (90.3 MHz), and Raidió Na Life (106.4 MHz).
In the Michelin Guide for 2018, five restaurants in Dublin have captured the stars of Michelin. Kevin Thornton from Ireland won two Michelin stars in 2001. At the Dublin Institute of Technology (present Dublin Institute of Technology), a bachelor's degree in cooking techniques was added in 1999.
Historically, Irish cafes were supposed to belong to people who work in the media. In the 21st century, with the increasing number of apartment houses in Dublin, young people gathered in cafes looking for places to gather and temporary offices where they could easily gather. In Dublin, cafes have become popular, and Irish coffee chains such as Java Republic, Insomnia and O'Brien's Sandwich Bars have become international competitors. In 2008, Steven Morissey, an Irish Varistor, won the title of World Varistor Champion.
Breyse, which produces tea and coffee and operates a cafe, has its head office and head office in Dublin.
Croque Park is the largest sports stadium in Ireland. It is the headquarters of the Gaelic Physical Education Association (GAA) and has 82,300 seats. It is the third largest stadium in Europe after Barcelona's Kamp Know and London's Wembley Stadium. Gaelic football and haring games, international rules soccer, and other sports events and non-sports events, including concerts on an irregular basis, are held. Mohamed Ali fought here in 1972 and hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special Olympics. In addition, a meeting and a banquet hall are also established. There is a GAA Museum, and there are tours that walk on the rooftop of the stadium. During the re-development of the Lansdowne Road, Cloak Park became the home ground of the Irish national rugby team and the Republic of Ireland national football team, and also held the semi-finals of the European Rugby Champions Cup between 2008 and 2009 against the Lenster, marking the world's highest number of spectators in a rugby match. The Dublin GAA team plays most of the Home League Harring games at Parnell Park.
The Landsdown Road was built in 1874. It was the site of the national rugby union team and the national football team of the Republic of Ireland. Thanks to the joint projects of the Irish Rugby Association, the Football Association of Ireland and the Irish government, it was redeveloped into Abiba Stadium with the latest 50,000 seats, which opened in May 2010. At Abiba Stadium, the 2011 UEFA European League final was held. Renstar Rugby, a rugby union, plays home games at RDS Arena and Abiba Stadium.
The Province of Dublin is home to six leagues of Ireland (football): Bohemian FC, Shamrock Rovers FC, St. Patrick's Athletic FC, University College Dublin AFC, Shelbourne FC and Cabin Tea FC. It was Shamrock Rovers F.C., playing at Tara Stadium in South Dublin, who first appeared on the European Group Stage (2011-12 UEFA European League Group Stage) in Ireland. The Bohemian F.C. is the oldest soccer stadium in Japan and plays at Daily Mount Park, the home ground of the Irish soccer team from 1904 to 1990. St. Patrick Athletic FC is playing at Richmond Park, University College Dublin AFC is playing at UCD Bowl in Dan Leary-Rasdown and Shelbourne FC is playing at Tolka Park.
Dublin has two ODI cricket grounds: Castle Avenue and Malhaid Cricket Club Ground. In Castle Avenue, the first One Day international game was held as part of the 1999 Cricket World Cup, which Bangladesh played against the West Indies on May 21, 1999. College Park at Dublin University Trinity College held Ireland's first test cricket match, a women's match with Pakistan in 2000. In 2018, the men's representative from Cricket Ireland made the first test match with Pakistan at the Malhaid Cricket Club Ground. Leinster Lightning is a home interregional match at College Park.
The home ground is Dublin Black Sox of the Irish Baseball League, Dublin Hurricanes and Dublin Spartaz.
The Dublin Marathon is being held from 1980 to the end of October. The women's mini-marathon has been held since 1983 on the first Monday of June, which is also a holiday for Irish banks. It is said to be the world's largest event for all women. The Great Ireland Run (Great Ireland Run) is being held at Phoenix Park in Dublin in mid-April.
A dog race is held at Shelbourne Park and a horse race is held at Leperstown. The Dublin Horse Show will be held at the Royal Society of Dublin (RDS), where the World Championships in Disability Transfer were held in 1982.
As of 2020, Dublin City has established a sister relationship with the following cities:
- San Jose (1986)
- Liverpool (1997)
- Barcelona (1998)
- Beijing (2011)
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- City of Dublin official website(English)
Government of Japan
- Japanese Embassy in Ireland(Japanese)
The WikiLabel has travel guides for Dublin.
- City of Dublin Tourist Office(English)
- Ireland Government Tourism Agency - Dublin(Japanese)
Coordinates: 53 degrees 20 minutes 34 seconds north latitude 6 degrees 15 minutes 58 seconds west longitude/ 53.34278 degrees north latitude 6.26611 degrees west longitude/ 53.34278; -6.26611